History free essay: American Civil War
American Civil War
Abraham Lincoln was the president of the Unites states of America in the period when the Civil War took place between 1860 and 1865. American public was under several forces of division and rebellion that caused tension to a unified country. The United States composed of states willing to overcome the rebellious calls by the group of nations referred to as the Confederacy. Secession was the theme of the Civil War where the Confederacy that constituted 11 nations, wanted to bring down the Union through their withdrawal. Certain reasons fueling the rebellion charges by the confederate stood out in the Civil War. Among the most conspicuous charges chanted by the rebellion, continuation of slavery among the Confederate States of America emerged. Whereas the United States indicated its intentions of abolition of slavery through well calculated moves and policies, the Confederate held the opinion that abolition would be a socioeconomic disaster for the country. Many abolitionists hailed from the north, and secession from the south was taken as an insult to the integrity of the American dream of equality for all Americans (Davis et al. 23). Slavery was concentrated in the south, and its expansion into the north was seen as a looming socioeconomic danger to the Union and abolitionists compelled the declaration of war.
Secession was also propagated by opinion against the election of Abraham Lincoln as president in 1960, which did not quell the calls for separation. Apparently, Lincoln was instrumental in antislavery campaigns and the Confederate States knew that his administration would not support their opinion on slave labor-driven economy. As an illustration, among the 996 electoral counties from which secession was held, Lincoln only managed to win only two counties. Secession was fueled by the fear that Lincoln would impose his position on slave labor, thereby endanger the economy of the Confederate States as well that of the United States. By the establishment of control of slavery and eventual abolition in 1820 across the world, the United States pledged its support for a free world, and it had to act to eliminate slavery across all member states.
In addition, nearly all of the southern states had a common origin getting into the Union, which included various acquisition methods such as purchase as well as conquest. In view of the diversity of the southern states in terms of their heterogeneity with the rest of the states, conflicts always cropped up. Among the most prevalent conflicts was the territorial uncertainty by the subjects. Despite the fact that the issue of economic reliance on slave labor characterized the tension, certain acquisition techniques did not resolve identity crises for certain groups of people. Common slaveholding characteristics of the southern nations posed a major danger to the entry into the Union, up to 1854 when the last acquisition was made. New entrants into the Union had to reorganize and adapt to the northern cultural and political environment, or find a way out, leading to the confusion (Garraty 56). Lincoln’s insistence of strength for all border states and remain in the Union throughout the campaign provided enough support to the Union victory. Initial intention of the confederation rebellion was to spread its slavery ideologies to back the economy, but the resistance at the border front effectively facilitated defeat for the Confederate States. Whereas the crashing of the nucleus of the secessionist movement was key in the deliberation of the relationship between the two blocs, Lincoln knew that its neutralization at the neighboring countries was vital in the realization of success.
The war broke between the two states’ blocs and despite the huge population advantage as well as industrial resources held by the north when compared with the south, it was a difficult battle to win. Abraham Lincoln led the Union into the war, and the initial onus was the mobilization of the military into the war, but it appeared to be a difficult war. Despite the numerical disadvantage by the south in the war, the Confederate States managed to hold on for five years. In view of the actual strategy employed by the southerners, critics relate the long war duration to a defeat delaying tactic by the Confederate States since their fate was almost predictable from the magnitude of the opposition from the north. The articulate leadership qualities of Abraham Lincoln for the United States almost made it difficult for the Confederate States to overcome the organization of the war machineries from the north. There are certain strengths in the Lincoln administration that stand out clearly for the accurate approach employed towards the victory witnessed in the war.
Firstly, Lincoln entrusted the mobilization of the Union’s military offensive to Ulysses S. Grant, an excellent general whose outstanding performance delivered nearly instant success to the war organization. Unlike his counterparts in the Confederate wing led by Robert E. Lee, General Ulysses complemented his president’s ideas in the approach to handle the rebellion. His fierce thoroughness in the war presented the northern forces as the most motivated of the two sides, thereby winning an important battle concept (Gates 402). Lincoln’s strategy however, was not entirely a military intensive approach as he involved different concepts in the war. As illustrated in the indirect war strategy below, the strength of the offensive was partly military and partly non-military.
Secondly, Lincoln advocated for a war policy that would have little bloodshed as an outcome of engagement of the Confederate States. Several approaches were devised to kill the cessation ideology within the country, and Lincoln was instrumental in throttling the war abilities of the Confederate States. The implementation of indirect war tactics by the Union such as blockades crippled the war potential held by the opposition. The commonest economic blockade against the Confederate States is the Anaconda Plan that effectively throttled economic life out of the Confederate States. It increasingly became impossible for the rebellion to be sustainable and a direct assault on the weakened military and economy effortlessly placed victory in the hands of the Union. Trade through the Confederate States with outside world was brought to a halt and supplies in form of food, weapons as well as earning of foreign revenue were cut off. Under the circumstances of an economy operating without supply lines by sea, rail and road connection, the fall of the Confederate Nations was imminent.
Additionally, Lincoln as the president of the Union declared the emancipation of all slaves liberated during the war destroyed the holding link on which cessation calls were based. Initially, the military did not have specific instructions on whether to hand freed slaves on to their maters. Lincoln’s declaration of freedom of all slaves not only weakened the Confederation’s position on benefits of free slave labor but also opened channels of an equitable Union including the liberated territory. The fight for American dream of equality as authored by Lincoln implied that the slaves had a better place in the American society and he demonstrated this by allowing the liberated slaves into military recruitment. As an illustration, at the end of the war, over 170,000 former southern slaves had successfully enrolled with the Union army, despite initially being destined for cheap labor in the south (Borno para.5). According to the author, the Union navy equally recruited as many as 19,000 black men who were in turn deployed to support the offensive against their former masters. The move of transforming the slave status was damaging to the ideologies of the southerners who would not use slaves in their military offensive. Southerners held the opinion that slaves should remain as such and their inclusion in such a task would contradict their support for slavery across the Confederate States.
Borno, James F. “The American Civil War and Abraham Lincoln,” n.d., Web. 2 June 2012, http://ezinearticles.com/?The-American-Civil-War-and-Abraham-Lincoln&id=1415696
Davis, Allen F., Frederick, Peter J., Howe, John R.,, Jeffrey, Julie Roy., Mires, Charlene., Nash, Gary. B., Pestana, Carla Gardina., & Winkler, Allan M., The American people: Creating a nation and a society, Vol. 1: To 1877 (7th Edn), New York, NY: Longman, 2005, Print
Garraty, John A. Historical viewpoints, Vol. 1: To 1877 (9th Edn) New York, NY: Longman, 2002, Print
Gates, Henry Louis. The classic slave narratives, New York, NY: Signet Classics, 2002, Print
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